The Juris Scientiae Doctor or Doctor of Juridicial Science degree is a research doctorate in law. Candidates for a JSD degree have typically already completed a JD and/or LL.M degree. The JSD generally requires a dissertation and takes three to five years to complete. The focus of a JSD, like a Ph.D., is on scholarship and research (whereas the focus of a JD is on preparation for the professional practice of law). JSD candidates usually intend to pursue careers in teaching, research, and/or policy development.